“The Pro Slavery 1790 Treaty of New York”

by refixico

Greetings , Thank you, Smithsonian Institution’s, National Museum of the American Indian, for exhibiting this treaty and bringing  to everyone’s attention, The 1790 Treaty of New York. This treaty is central to understanding that era, it specifically explains the evolving relationship between the new country, known as the United States of America and the Great Creek Confederacy (Upper,Middle,Lower Creeks and Seminole Indians). My disclaimer is, that I am NOT a Historian…I am an Activist and an Informed Descendant. “The Worlds Leading Expert on Seminole Maroons”, Dr. Kevin Mulroy, Dean of Library Sciences of Claremont Colleges 7 Libraries, was my Smithsonian Institution Researcher, for the ,”indiVisible”:African-Native American Lives in the Americas ,book and exhibit. Dr.Mulroy, describes, me as “a contemporary Seminole Maroon descendant of mixed race who lives in Los Angeles”. “Phil is one-eighth Seminole Indian, one quarter Seminole Freedmen. one eighth Creek freedmen, one quarter Cherokee-freedmen, and one quarter African-American-White”. Mr. Wm. L. Katz, internationally known author, has also, included me in his dedication section, of his famous book “Black Indians”(the new edition). The Treaty of 1790, which is currently being displayed by the National Museum of the American Indian, presents, a critically important opportunity for Descendants of America ,to come to gripes with the direction , that Democracy, Slavery and Manifest Destiny, would take. It is obvious, in it’s own words that the country intended to develop itself as a expanding Slavocracy, with a growth policy based on taking Indian Land. Two undeniable victories are, that today we have a African-American President Barack Obama and the National Museum of the American Indian, which means, that the “Higher Angels of the United States of America”, fought back and accomplished tremendous achievements in spite, of the designs of all the broken treaties in our past. Of course, President Obama and the NMAI, are not enough, to make it right, but they represent, HOPE. We must look at what ensued, in the wake of this Treaty and how it was administrated. In Article 12 it says that “the U.S. will send persons to reside in the Creek Nation” to judge if they are acting properly. The main person the U.S. Gov’t, sent was Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, who was the Direct Descendant of Admiral John Hawkins, who with Queen Elizabeth of England established the “TransAtlanticSlave Trade. His job was to teach Indians how to become, Herdsmen and Cultivators and to teach them that Enslaved People, were not their extended family members, they were Slaves. I believe, when President Thomas Jefferson , sent word to Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins to come to the Capital (Philadelphia) for a meeting and , it is said the the highly educated Benjamin Hawkins, answered, that he would come : “If God willing and the Creek don’t rise”. I believe that he was talking about the Creek Indians. His job was to keep the Creek Indians in line with the 1790 Treaty of New York, which had “Secret Articles” that re-enforced a Slavery Policy and secret pay-offs to certain Chiefs and Warriors. I say, look not only at the treaty but look what followed, the Creek Civil War (Red Sticks) which was held between Pro-Slavery Creeks and Mixed-Bred Creeks vs. “Traditional Creeks” and Black Muscogulges. The Pro-Slavery/Mixed Breds, won with Andrew Jackson’s help, Yet ,the winners, still faced the Treaty of Indian Springs. They had more land taken, from them and they had to pay $250,000.00 in “Reparations” to Georgia Slaves owners, for Slaves and the “increase” ( Enslaved Children), that they, were unable to return under the treaty. Look at the other Southeastern Indian treaties, like Treaty of Coleraine, Treaty of Moultrie Creek, Treaty of Paynes Landing, Fort Gibson and etc. I still say, that although, there was never a Treaty that was kept, we must keep the struggle alive through our Activism and never lose hope in the Good People of all races who have devoted their lives and energies to making “MAMA AMERICA” a better place for everyone ,especially, future Americans. “Through Warm Tears of Gratitude”, Phil “Pompey Bruner” Fixico, Seminole Maroon Descendant, North American Maroon